Manic Street Preachers
Manic Street Preachers are a Welsh alternative rock band, formed in 1986. They are James Dean Bradfield, Nicky Wire and Sean Moore. The band are part of the Cardiff music scene, and were at their most prominent during the 1990s. They are colloquially known as 'The Manics' or 'Manics'. The band were originally a quartet: primary lyricist and rhythm guitarist Richey Edwards vanished on 1 February 1995. In November 2008, thirteen years after his disappearance, he was officially declared presumed deceased. The Manics released their debut album, Generation Terrorists in 1992. Their combination of androgynous glam punk imagery, outspoken invective and songs about "culture, alienation, boredom and despair" soon gained them a loyal following and cult status. The band's later albums retained a leftist politicisation and intellectual lyrical style, while adopting a broader alternative rock sound. Enigmatic lyricist Richey Edwards gained early notoriety by cutting the words "4REAL" into his arm with a razor blade (narrowly missing an artery and requiring seventeen stitches) in response to the suggestion that the band were less than authentic. The dark nature of 1994's The Holy Bible reflected the culmination of Edwards' instability.